8D (Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving) is a meticulous process used to solve complex problems. This is a popular method for problem solving because it is reasonably easy to teach and effective. 8D uses composite problem solving methodology, by borrowing tools and techniques from various approaches. The original 8D process was pioneered by Ford Motor Company and called TOPS (Team Oriented Problem Solving). The process is documented on a form with attachments; however, following the form does not complete the 8D process and will not yield desired results.
The 8D steps and tools used are as follows:
D0: Prepare for the 8D
- Collect the Symptoms
- Symptoms Checklist
- Emergency Response Action
D1: Form a Team
- Core Team Structure
- Team Preparation
D2: Describe the Problem
- 5 Why
- Problem Statement
- Affinity Diagram
- Is / Is Not
- Problem Description
D3: Interim Containment Action
- Verification of Effectiveness
D4: RCA (Root Cause Analysis) and Escape Point
- Differences and Changes
- Root Cause Theories
- Process Flow Diagram
- Escape Point
D5: Permanent Corrective Action
- Acceptance Criteria
- Risk Assessment / FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis)
- Balanced Choice
- Control Point Improvement
- Verification of Effectiveness
D6: Implement and Validate
- Project Plan
- Validation of Improvements
- Similar Products and Process Prevention
- Systems Prevention
- Standard Work or Practice
- Procedures / Policy Updates
D8: Closure and Team Celebration
- Archive Documents
- Team Lessons Learned
- Before and After Comparison
- Celebrate Successful Completion
The 8D process or Global 8D, as it is known by Ford, alternates inductive and deductive problem solving tools to steadily progress towards a solution. The Quality-One approach uses a core team of three for inductive activities with data driven tools and a larger SME (Subject Matter Expert) team for the deductive activities through brainstorming.
FMEA is a tool used in the planning of product or process design. The Failure Modes in a FMEA are equivalent to the problem statement or description in an 8D. Causes in a FMEA are equivalent to potential causes in an 8D. Effects of failure in a FMEA are problem symptoms in an 8D. The relationships between 8D and FMEA are outlined below:
- The problem statements and descriptions can be linked between both documents. An 8D can be completed faster by utilizing easy to locate, pre-brainstormed information from a FMEA to solve problems.
- Possible causes in a FMEA can immediately be used to jump start 8D Fishbone or Ishikawa diagrams. Brainstorming information that is already known is not a good use of time or resources.
- Data and brainstorming collected during an 8D can be placed into a FMEA for future planning of new product or process quality. This allows a FMEA to consider actual failures, occurring as failure modes and causes, becoming more effective and complete.
- The design or process controls in a FMEA can be used in verifying the root cause and Permanent Corrective Action in an 8D.
The FMEA and 8D should reconcile each failure and cause by cross documenting failure modes, problem statements and possible causes. Each FMEA can be used as a database of possible causes of failure as an 8D is developed.
Q-1 provides problem solving expertise and training in the 8D method. 8D is useful for problem solving in any industry or application. We have transferred 8D knowledge to thousands of users, offering Training and Facilitation customized to your unique business needs.
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